The Holm Oak grows mainly in the lower parts of the region, but spreading upwards to mingle with the Pubescent oaks. It is at home on both acid Maquis and limestone ground of the Garrigue.
This evergreen oak has long, pointed (or sometimes oval) leaves, each a single lobe, and not the widely-known oak-leaf shape. The lower leaves are often prickly looking rather like Ilex (Holly), from which is derived its Latin name.
Holm oak can grow to 30 m, and some are seen that big, usually standing alone in a field. They also grow in thick forests but, in this environment, seldom get the tall, rounded shape seen in the north.